How Much Data Do You Need to Run a Classification Analysis?

All code for these analyses is available here. Imagine that you’re an epidemiologist who’s curious whether people who fall ill with COVID-19 differ from those who don’t along several dimensions that measure their health and demographics. Or, imagine that you’re a cognitive neuroscientist who’s curious whether a particular brain region responds differently to two types of images - for example, large and small objects. In both cases, you might want to use a classification analysis to understand whether the categories (infected vs.